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Subject: DIGEST 3.2. Discussion with Kenneth Yongabi (CM) et al.
From: "jacky foo (IOBB)" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To:IOBB E-Seminar: Biodegradation of Lubricating oil contaminated soil (08-31 May)" <[log in to unmask]>
Date:Mon, 15 May 2006 23:22:37 +0200
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Note: 
see original version at http://www.iobbnet.org/drupal/node/view/885
which may contain images and html links. 


+++++++++ 
how do you keep the extract sterile
Submitted by Jacky Foo on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 05:57.
+++++++++ 

Jacky wrote:
>I dont fully understand the method of measurement.
>You expose the extract in the sun for 5 days and then you measure the

>absorbance.
>
>Q: how do you keep the extract sterile during the 5 days ?

Kenneth responded:
>This is certainly not an experiment you worry about aseptic
conditions, 
>we are not using it to test as a drug. The whole work is a pilot-in
the 
>field, in the open we only wanted to estimate the possible quantity
of 
>the oils in situ in the contaminated soil. Our end desire is this,
was 
>the oil cleaned up? Back to the soil contaminated by this oil, 
>bacterial doesn't easily grow either.

let me re-phrase my question.
In the preparation of the extract, you whatman-paper filter the soil
extract. I presume this filtrate is not sterile. Then you leave it in
the sun for 5 days (and probably take the tubes into the lab at
night).

Q: since the filtered extract is not sterile (it will contain some
soil microbes) is it possible that further biodegradation of the
lubricating oil will take place during the process of preparation (5
days of evaporation) of the samples before measurements ?

-----
Jacky Foo
http://www.iobbnet.org



+++++++++ 
spent substrate/compost of Pleurotus ostreatus
Submitted by Jacky Foo on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 06:18.
+++++++++ 

Hi Kenneth

in your paper Potentials of Pleurotus ostreatus and urea as Bio
Catalysts in the Biodegradation of Lubricating oil contaminated soil

you amended the test soil with "Pleurotus ostreatus compost". You also
used the phrase "Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate".

Q: what were the original ingredients used in preparing the substrate
for Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation.

"Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate" (to me) is the left-over
material after the cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.
Cultivation period may be about a month.

Q: was the spent subtrate subjected to composting as a further step
before it was in your experiments ?

If this is done, I would understand the phrase: "Pleurotus ostreatus
compost"

Q: did you measure the nitrogen content of the "spent substrate" or
"compost" used for your experiments ?

Q: which substrate would have higher nitrogen content:
(a) "Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate"
or
(b) composted "Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate"

-----
Jacky Foo
http://www.iobbnet.org



+++++++++ 
sources of wastes that has high nitrogen content
Submitted by Jacky Foo on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 06:37.
+++++++++ 

Hi Kenneth

it is interested to know that wastes that has a high nitrogen content
can have a further use in bioremediation of soil. The public and
farmers add materials (as fertilisers) on to their land for the plants
only. They usually do not think of such added materials primarily
serve as food for the microbes and that if microbes are fed well, they
will also degrade harmful chemicals that are found in the soil.

In this context, I wonder if anyone has monitored compositions of
soils from adjacent plots for harmful chemicals or contaminants. One
plot would be inorganically fertilised with chemical fertilisers and
all crop biomass is removed after each harvest. The other plot would
have organic compost inputs and all plant biomass from each harvest is
recycled into the soil of the plot.

Would the inorganically fertilised crop field accumulate more harmful
chemicals (e.g. pesticides) than the organic plot ?

-----
Jacky Foo
http://www.iobbnet.org



+++++++++ 
how do you keep the extract sterile
Submitted by Kenneth-Yongabi... on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 17:28.
+++++++++ 

Jacky asked
Q: since the filtered extract is not sterile (it will contain some
soil microbes) is it possible that further biodegradation of the
lubricating oil will take place during the process of preparation (5
days of evaporation) of the samples before measurements ?

Hexane as an organic solvent is antiseptic,so the extract-hexane
mixture undergoing evaporation is microbe free in the first place.In
the drying process there could be surface contamination,yes,this may
be obvious when dealing with other plant based extracts.For this
case,although not tested for,I doubt much in the sense that the soil
where the oil has been extracted initially was inhibiting microbial
growth and other biotics around the mechanic workshops. That is why we
are using exotic agents with exogenous microflora to stimulate and or
add to dormant endogenous flora. Regards, Kenneth



+++++++++ 
spent substrate/compost of Pleurotus ostreatus
Submitted by Kenneth-Yongabi... on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 17:39.
+++++++++ 

Q: was the spent subtrate subjected to composting as a further step
before it was in your experiments ?

No! the substrate used for the mushroom cultivation was already
composted.The spent substrate is the remnants after the fruits were
harvested that we used in the bioremediation studies.


: did you measure the nitrogen content of the "spent substrate" or
"compost" used for your experiments ?

No! Local studies have done such studies especially in animal sciences
departments when using it as animal feed supplements.



which substrate would have higher nitrogen content:
(a) "Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate"
oror) composted "Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate"


We didn,t do this,our focus was not on this at the moment.We want to
know if it can effect biodegration in the first instance,after this
there are so many branches to go. Regards, Kenneth
(b) composted "Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate"



+++++++++ 
sources of wastes that has high nitrogen content
Submitted by Kenneth-Yongabi... on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 17:44.
+++++++++ 

Would the inorganically fertilised crop field accumulate more harmful
chemicals (e.g. pesticides) than the organic plot ?


Yes,we have a catalogued a number of vegetable crops that are
vbioaccumulators of toxic metals in Bauchi,Amaranthus,Lettuce etc We
have spervised a few undergraduates on this. kenneth » login or
register to post comments | email this page Jacky Foo's avatar sources
of wastes that has high nitrogen content Submitted by Jacky Foo on
Mon, 15/05/2006 - 20:10.
>we have a catalogued a number of vegetable crops that are 
>bioaccumulators of toxic metals

are you saying that Amaranthus and Lettuce would accumulate LESS toxic
metals when grown in an organically fertilised soil (than in the same
soil that is inorganically fertilised).

If so, this is a most interesting knowledge as it further attributes
greater credit and importance to the role of soil microbes and organic
agriculture.

-----
Jacky Foo
http://www.iobbnet.org



+++++++++ 
spent substrate/compost of Pleurotus ostreatus
Submitted by Jacky Foo on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 20:28.
+++++++++ 

Jacky asked:
>Q: was the spent subtrate subjected to composting as a further step 
>before it was in your experiments ?

Kenneth responded
>No!
>the substrate used for the mushroom cultivation was already
composted. 
>The spent substrate is the reminants after the fruits were harvested 
>that we used in the bioremediation studies.

I believe that the spent substrate from Pleurotus cultivation will
still have a lot of live fungal biomass. This also contribute to the
total nitrogen content.

Q: Do you think the live fungal biomass has any significant
degradative role in breaking down the lubricant oil ?

Q: Is the breakdown mainly due to existing soil microorganisms (rather
than microbes from the spent substrate) ?

It might be interesting in another set of experiments to find this out
with the following conditions
(i) unsterilised test soil + spent substrate
(ii) sterilised test soil + spent substrate
(iii) unsterilised test soil + sterilised spent substrate
and the same with urea
(iv) unsterilised test soil + urea
(ii) sterilised the test soil + urea

- If -
unsterilised test soil + sterilised spent substrate
- or -
unsterilised test soil + urea

can produce the best results, then it is the indigenous soil microbes
play the more important role.

This would also mean that you have some special bugs in the soil
samples you have collected.

Q: Where is the soil collected from ??

-----
Jacky Foo
http://www.iobbnet.org


+++++++++ 
work on inoculum
Submitted by Jacky Foo on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 20:40.
+++++++++ 

Rapid biological clean-up of soils contaminated with lubricating oil
Rittmann, BE; Johnson, NM. Water Science & Technology. Vol. 21, pt 1,
no. 4-5, pp. 209-219. 1989

An experimental program assessed which mechanisms control the rapid
biodegradation of used lubricating oil which contaminates soils. The
ultimate goal is to effect a rapid biodegradation before the
contaminants in the oil are leached into the groundwater or carried
into surface waters with runoff.

Large amounts of lubricating-oil-degrading bacteria could be grown in
liquid culture, as long as a dispersant was applied to form and
maintain an oil-in-water emulsion.

Application of the oil-degrading bacteria (up to 4.9 x 10 super(8)/g
soil) significantly increased the initial rate of oil degradation in
soil plots. However, the long-term rate of degradation slowed as the
more available or more biodegradable components of the oil were
removed.

The fastest removal rates were obtained when the oil-contaminated soil
was put into a water-soil slurry and was inoculated with
microorganisms and dispersant. Improved microorganism contact and
dispersant effectiveness apparently were responsible for the rapid
rates in slurry reactors.

The increased rates demonstrated the potential value of adding a
large, acclimated inoculum and providing good mixing and dispersion to
make the oil more available to the microorganisms.

-----
Jacky Foo
http://www.iobbnet.org



+++++++++ 
work on inoculum and 1kg fertiliser/m3 compost matrix
Submitted by Jacky Foo on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 21:00.
+++++++++ 

I did not have time to read this article in Environmental Pollution
107 (2000) 245±254 on "Bioremediation of petroleum
hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by composting in biopiles" by K.S.
Jůrgensen*, J. Puustinen1, A.-M. Suortti.

What attracted me was also the preparation of the materials for
testing:
>Spruce bark was used as the bulking agent. The total amount of bark 
>used in the piles was approximately 150 m3 and the ratio of soil to 
>bulking agent was approximately 1:3 on a volume basis.

Nutrients were added as dry nitrogen-rich compound fertilizer
(Typpirikas Y-lannos 1, Kemira, Finland). The product contained 26% N,
3% P, 3% K, 1.5% S, 0.5% Mg, 0.03% B and 0.0006% Se. Nitrogen
compounds consisted of NH4-N (54%) and NO3-N (46%). In the four lube
oil-contaminated soil piles the addition was approximately 1 kg of
fertilizer per cubic metre of compost matrix.

-----
Jacky Foo
http://www.iobbnet.org



+++++++++ 
addition of compost - microbial action or just the N-content 
Submitted by Jacky Foo on Mon, 15/05/2006 - 21:13. 
+++++++++ 

Acta Biotechnologica Volume 16, Issue 1 , Pages 19 - 30 Enhancement of
the biological degradation of soils contaminated with oil by the
addition of compost K. Hupe, J.-C. Lüth, J. Heerenklage, R. Stegmann

here is another interesting abstract - excerpts:

The investigations made so far have shown that compost is a favourable
additive when oil-contaminated soils are biologically treated. The
degradation of contaminants can be enhanced by the addition of
compost. This positive effect is attributed to various mechanisms.

The addition of biocompost could also enhance the degradation of real
contaminants. After a test period of 162 days in set-ups with compost
addition, more than 75% of the lubricating oil contaminants
disappeared, while less than 37% of the contaminants disappeared in
set-ups without compost addition.

-----
Jacky Foo
http://www.iobbnet.org

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