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Subject: [Spam:***** SpamScore] Re: Use of wild fish for aquaculture feed
From: Richard Lord <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To:Scientific forum on fish and fisheries <[log in to unmask]>
Date:Sat, 6 Mar 2010 12:10:53 +0000
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This is an interesting issue.

I need to confirm what I believe.  What I believe:  Fish meal is expensive.  Fish meal manufacturers are trying to reduce the amount of fish meal in carnivorous fish feed by supplementing plant amino acids/ proteins without reducing growth rates.

My taste buds are changing with age but I believe that the flavour and texture of farmed salmon is declining / has declined since the early days of farming these fish and the expansion of the farmed salmon industry (post 1980s).   I assume this is due to the formulation of the feed.  I have stopped buying farmed salmon because it no longer resembles the flavour and texture of any wild salmon.  The muscle is generally too watery and too fatty, and the fat isn't flavourful.

Smoking the muscle adds flavour and reduces moisture, which improves the eating experience of farmed salmon.

I don't see the point of taking a premium wild fish like Salmo and Oncorhynchus and making it taste like a battery chicken.  I think it is also unsustainable with the human population growing by about 150 people per minute (just shy of 80 million per year) we will need to eat lower down the food chain if we are to have enough food for everybody.  According to some sources there are about 10.8 billion hectares of productive surface area on the globe's surface (sea and land).  I don't know how the calculation is made but the world's population is skyward of 6.8 billion now (it was just passing the 3 billion mark when I was at school) so each human has about 1.58 hectares of productive surface area available for their needs and this is declining all the time.  

Many of us in western society are eating far too much animal protein anyway.  Besides the well documented problems of obesity in the USA and the UK when I was promoting seafood, the US Heart Association was telling us to have an animal protein portion of 100 grams (3 1/2 oz) per main meal but portion sizes in foodservice establishments in the western world are notably larger.  

I don't know about the 'green lobby' but if we don't wake up to living on this planet sustainably our civilisation is going to suffer.  

"We are living on this planet as if we had another one to go to."	Professor Paul Connett
 
Best wishes,

Richard

Richard Lord

[log in to unmask]
Tel: +44 (0)1481 700688


On 6 Mar 2010, at 11:23, William Silvert wrote:

> I found this of interest and am passing it on. I am waiting to see more verification of the calculations, but it could be a boost for the farming of salmon and other carnivorous fish.
> 
> Bill Silvert
> 
> Can a new approach set the record straight?
> 
> Some estimate that it takes 4 to 5 kilograms of wild fish to grow 1 kilogram of farmed fish, and this fish-in-fish-out ratio is frequently used by opponents of salmon farming. Such a figure makes a good sound bite. But is it accurate? 
> Fish-in-fish-out (FIFO) ratios are much loved by environmental NGOs and researchers, who use them to calculate how much wild fish is needed to produce 1 kilogram of salmon. The latest papers estimate that it takes 4 to 5 kilograms of wild input to grow 1 kilogram of farmed, and this ratio is frequently used by opponents of salmon farming.
> 
> It was also quoted at a recent public hearing on aquaculture in the European Parliament, and caused MEPs to question once again, the sustainability of fish farming. Such a figure makes a good sound bite and sounds suitably outrageous. But is it accurate?
> 
> One of the problems with FIFO calculations is that they count the fish used in fishmeal and fish oil production separately, whereas in reality the meal and oil largely come from the same fish. They also do not account properly for the increasing use of trimmings, and these omissions produce inaccuracies in the calculations.
> 
> The International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organization (IFFO) removes this double counting, and assumes that every scrap of fish meal and fish oil will be used up in feed for various species. This brings the FIFO ratio down to around 2:1. Arguably better than 5:1, but it still does not convince the green lobby of the benefits of aquaculture.
> 
> A new approach has been taken by fish feed manufacturer EWOS, which has revisited the controversy and taken into account the nutritional values of the fishmeal and fish oil, and of the resulting farmed fish. Their scientists argue that on a whole weight basis, farmed salmon contain around 20 percent fat, whereas wild caught fish used for fishmeal average around 7 percent fat. Taken on this simple scale, farmed salmon is an excellent way of increasing the nutritional value of fish used for human consumption. Weight-for-weight based calculations ignore the nutritional benefits and are biased against high fat species such as salmon and trout.
> 
> To redress the balance, EWOS last year proposed the use of nutrient ratios, which allow for a comparison between different farmed species, even though there are differences in their body composition. Their new calculations showed that it takes just 1.2 kilogram of marine ingredients to produce 1 kilogram of salmon, making salmon farming close to becoming a net seafood producer, i.e. providing more fish protein for human consumption than that removed from the ocean to make salmon feed.
> 
> Now EWOS scientists have gone even further, with their latest salmon feed trials achieving a marine nutrient ratio below 1:1, whilst maintaining good fish growth rates and feed efficiency, and still meeting the omega-3 fatty acid requirements of the consumer. Using separate calculations of nutrient ratios for proteins and fats, the marine protein dependency ratio was found to be 0.7:1, and the marine oil dependency ratio 0.9:1.
> 
> Their researchers also applied the nutrient ratio formula to historic data and found that dependency on marine proteins was higher than that of marine oils in 1997, but that by 2007 they were almost equal. This significant development was hidden by the use of simplistic weight-based ratios that do not separate out the different elements, and will be useful when reformulating feeds. 
> 
> Over the next few months, EWOS will be making public the results of its research. The company also aims to engage with the green lobby and those who influence industry, in a bid to convince them of its significance. It will be interesting to see how successful EWOS is in "selling" its research findings. Perhaps the European Parliament would be a good place to start.
> 
> All Commentaries >
> 
> Story from SeafoodSource.com:
> http://www.seafoodsource.com/newsarticledetail.aspx?id=4294989520 
> 
> Published: Thursday, March 04, 2010 
> 
>  SeafoodSource.com 2008 - 2010
> 
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